Water is essential to the livelihoods, health, food security, resilience and economic development of the people living in the Limpopo River Basin. Managing water resources to balance these competing demands is a huge challenge, more so in the face of climate change and rapid population growth. Managing water resources becomes even more complicated where multiple countries depend on the same resource, in a transboundary water system. Linked to transboundary surface water resources of the Limpopo River, major shared groundwater reserves exist that can support small-scale agriculture, drought and flood resilience and urban expansion. If cooperatively managed as part of ongoing joint collaboration between states, use of groundwater can spur local economic development and strengthen resilience. However, historically, groundwater resources have been accorded less attention in water development planning processes and cooperative management of shared groundwater resources has not been widely implemented.